Psychological counseling is done using different methods. Basically it is the target that determines the kind of psychological help chosen
In fact, counseling itself implies helping people find alternative solutions in the external world. So a young teen who is not aware of the kind of courses available for him to opt for after his schooling may go for counseling where information is imparted regarding the choices available.
A young expecting mother may want counseling on what she must eat or what she must feed the baby or how to organize her routine with her infant.
The difference comes in when the problem is in the internal world. So now the same teen says he has two options available to him and he has researched the pros and cons for each option but is unable to make up his mind. Here the problem is not external but internal as there is undermining of his capability at deciding what works best for himself. The kind of therapy depends on the choices people have about what they want and also on the technique followed by the therapist
Psychotherapy could be Supportive by allowing people to just speak, reassure them, guidance recommending relaxation, building on interests etc.For example if a lady has a problem with her colleague at the work place,which has led to some psychological distress with symptoms of sleeplessness,irritability lack of concentration,reduced motivation,depressed mood or body aches and pains , supportive therapy offers her a non judgemental platform to talk about her problems,reassure her ,suggest alternatives to de stress and help her till she overcomes her current symptoms with or without medication.
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy is transformative and allows more awareness into ones personality helping the person use this awareness to strengthen himself leading to personality growth and expansion. It provides insight into unconscious conflicts which have led to the suffering of the person so that he can make positive choices to free himself of his suffering.This form of therapy is less directive though the therapist may use suggestions to strengthen the clients ego from time to time.A lot of attention is given to the relationship built with the therapist and the dynamics constantly playing out in this relationship to understand the difficulties the client experiences in his other relationships and help him work through those with empathy.This therapy is particularly useful where symptoms of sadness,somatic pain symptoms leading to chronic headaches, body pain,migraines decreased motivation, anxiety,stress,indecision,helplessness,self blame,excessive guilt may be causing the suffering. For example an individual who in his early years grew up with criticism may continue to criticise himself leading to sadness and excessive anxiety. It is also useful for people living a life where their actions have led to excessive guilt,sadness or detachment but they are unable to stop the vicious cycle because they believe their actions define them.Therapy helps them see that the difference between them and the actions they have chosen over many years which has made them believe that both are inseparable.For any therapy to succeed the will and motivation of the client is the driving force.
This therapy enables the person to work through some of these destructive mechanisms and alleviate his suffering and to enable him to live his life without fear